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The Impact of a Supernova Remnant on a Molecular Cloud

Supernovae send copious amount of energy into the interstellar medium (ISM) and are an important driver of its chemical evolution. IC 443, at a distance of 1.5 kpc, is one of the best studied supernova remnants (SNR) interacting with a molecular cloud. It is thus an excellent target to investigate the physics and chemistry of shock models. The SOFIA telescope covers and can spectrally resolve a variety of molecular lines that trace shocks. Several of these lines have been observed towards IC 443 with different projects. Combined, they allow an in-depth study of the shocks that interact with the molecular cloud.

Keywords:
GREAT
EXES
Emission lines
interstellar and intergalactic medium
Supernova Remnants
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The Multi-phase Envelope of NGC 7538 IRS1

To study the early stages of star formation, the SOFIA archive hosts a wealth of data on the young protostellar object NGC7538 IRS1. These include: images at 7.7, 19.7, 25.3, 31.5 and 37.1 µm from FORCAST, spectral maps covering 75-95 µm and 135-155 µm from FIFI-LS, and high-resolution spectra from 5.5 to 27 µm from EXES. These rich datasets provide key tracers of young stellar envelops and are currently processed and available through IRSA.

Keywords:
EXES
FIFI-LS
FORCAST
HII region
star formation
multiwavelength study
Spectroscopy
dust
imaging
interstellar and intergalactic medium
massive stars
Emission lines
stellar evolution and models
Young stars and protostellar objects
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Velocity Resolved [CII] and [NII] Maps of Select HII Regions of M33

Measurements of far infrared cooling lines are ideal tools for studying the interstellar medium (ISM, Wolfire et. al. 2003). The brightest of these cooling lines is often the 158 micron line from singly-ionized carbon, or the [CII] 158 μm line (Luhman et. al. 2003), making it a frequent target of study in both local and high-z galaxies (Léfvre et. al. 2020). This emission line can originate in a wide variety of ISM environments, which complicates the utility of [CII] as an indicator of ISM properties. This complication can be overcome by using velocity-resolved maps of both the [CII] emission and the 205 μm line of singly ionized nitrogen ([NII] 205 μm). Resolved [CII] 158 μm and [NII] 205 μm maps of three HII regions in M33 obtained by the GREAT instrument onboard SOFIA are currently available on the IRS SOFIA Archive. These detailed maps are useful for a wide variety of studies of ISM conditions relating to star formation.

Keywords:
GREAT
Emission lines
HII regions
Galaxy Disks
interstellar and intergalactic medium
Local Group Galaxies
star formation
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Proplyds of Orion seen with [OI] and OH

The majority of stars form in very active star forming regions where feedback from the most massive stars can photo-evaporate the disk of accreting young stellar objects (YSOs), so called proplyds, and thus affect the ongoing star formation. The exact impact of irradiation on proplyds thus has to be studied to understand how it limits mass accretion in these objects.

Keywords:
Jets
Accretion Disks
star formation
Young stars and protostellar objects
Nebulae
H Ii Regions
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Legacy Program: Magnetic Fields in Nearby Galaxies

What is the role of magnetic fields in sculpting the ISM at kiloparsec scales? This question is the driver behind the Legacy Program: 'SOFIA heralds a new era of measuring the magnetic fields of galaxies', which consists of 50-220 microns polarimetric observations of 17 nearby galaxies including starbursts, mergers, active galaxies, and spiral galaxies. The HAWC+ data for targets M82, NGC 1097, NGC 2146, NGC 6946, Centaurus A, and Circinus are already public on IRSA.

Keywords:
HAWC+
spiral galaxies
interacting and merging galaxies
interstellar and intergalactic medium
multiwavelength study
star formation starburst galaxies
dust
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A Testbed for Starburst Activity: 30 Doradus

30 Doradus is an ideal laboratory for studying massive star-forming regions. To better understand these processes, multiple SOFIA instruments have mapped 30 Doradus at a variety of infrared bands. These include FIFI-LS maps of the [CII], [OI], [NII], and [OIII] lines, GREAT maps of the [13CII] isotope transition, and HAWC+ polarization maps at 53, 89, 154, and 214 μm.

Keywords:
FIFI-LS
GREAT
HAWC+
star formation
starburst
HII regions
Emission lines
interstellar medium
Spectroscopy
Magellenic Clouds
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Exploring the CMZ: the Arches Cluster

The Arches Cluster, one of the densest star cluster in our galaxy, is located within the Galactic Center’s Central Molecular Zone, just about 25 pc from Sagittarius A*. Maps of this cluster are available through the SOFIA archive, including: spectrally-resolved maps of the [CII] line from GREAT, wide-field maps of the [CII] and [NIII] 57 µm lines from FIFI-LS, and 25 µm and 37 µm FORCAST maps.

Keywords:
FORCAST
GREAT
galactic center
dynamics
Emission lines
HII regions
interstellar and intergalactic medium
massive stars
dust
Spectroscopy
star formation
stellar evolution and models
Young stars and protostellar objects
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New [C II] Maps in Massive Star Formation Regions

Understanding and quantifying the effects of feedback in massive star-forming regions is an essential step in decoding galaxy evolution. In pursuit of this goal, the GREAT instrument has mapped the [CII] 158 µm and [OI] 63 µm lines in massive Milky Way star-forming regions as part of the FEEDBACK program.

Keywords:
GREAT
Emission lines
Galaxy formation and evolution
Galaxy morphology and structure
HII regions
interstellar and intergalactic medium
Spectroscopy
star formation
Stellar Activity
Stellar evolution and modles
Young stars and protostellar objects
winds/outflows/mass-loss
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Organic Inventories in Young Stellar Objects and Disks with EXES

Over the past several years, EXES observations have contributed to a rich inventory of mid-IR (5.5-8 µm) spectra from YSOs and protoplanetary disks. The available public database includes sources such as: GV Tau's disk, massive protostars AFGL 2136, AFGL 2591, massive star-forming region Orion IRc2, and high-mass YSOs NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 9.

Keywords:
EXES
Absorption lines
chemical abundance
dust
protoplanetary disk
star formation
stellar evolution and models
Young stars and protostellar objects
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Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1)

One of the nearest massive star forming regions, OMC-1, is situated just behind the Orion Nebula and has been extensively observed with all SOFIA instruments. Data accessible through the archive includes: HAWC+ photometric and polarization maps at 53, 89, 154, and 214 µm, GREAT ionized carbon [CII] velocity-resolved map at 158 µm, FORCAST and FLITECAM imaging of the Orion Bar at 3.3 and 11.2 µm, and FIFI-LS maps of mid-J CO lines between 69 and 200 µm. These images and maps are only a subset of the SOFIA observations of OMC-1 available.

Keywords:
FIFI-LS
FLITECAM
FORCAST
GREAT
HAWC+
Spectroscopy
imaging
HII regions
star formation
interstellar and intergalactic medium
Multiwavelength
Emission lines
Chemical abundances
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Galactic Center Legacy Program

The inaugural Legacy Program used the FORCAST instrument to observe the Galactic Center using the 25-micron and 37-micron bands. The data have unprecedented spatial resolution – six times higher than past observations — resulting in a vastly improved view of warm dust in the center of the galaxy and revealing signatures of star formation in exquisite detail.

Keywords:
FORCAST
dust
star formation
imaging
galactic center
Galactic Bulge
Galaxy morphology and structure
HII regions
interstellar and intergalactic medium
multiwavelength study
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[OI] and CO Maps of Pillars in the Carina Nebula

The Carina Nebula is home to several massive star clusters and more than 65 O stars. Using the fully-sampled and velocity-resolved GREAT [OI] and CO maps of these pillars, scientists can probe the kinematics, morphology, and physical conditions within these interesting regions.

Keywords:
GREAT
star formation
interstellar and intergalactic medium
Emission lines
Young stars and protostellar objects
Spectroscopy
HII region
Molecular Cloud
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[C II] Map of the M51 Galaxy

The entirety of the M51 galaxy was imaged using both FIFI-LS and GREAT. This dataset consists of the first complete, velocity resolved [CII] 158 µm image of the M51 grand-design spiral galaxy with the upGREAT and FIFI-LS instruments on SOFIA.

Keywords:
FIFI-LS
GREAT
star formation
Spiral galaxy
interstellar and intergalactic medium
Emission lines
Spectroscopy
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S-DDT Highlight: 30 Doradus Maps using HAWC+

Data for an unprecedented infrared polarimetric analysis of the 30 Doradus star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud were taken by HAWC+. At the center is a cluster of O-type and Wolf-Rayet stars that heat the surrounding dust, allowing for in-depth total intensity and polarimetry analysis of star formation in the infrared. SOFIA compiled polarization maps taken at 53, 89, 154, and 214 µm, revealing dust emission between 10-100 K and allowing for an inferred morphology study of the magnetic field.

Keywords:
HAWC+
Wolf-Rayet Stars
Magellenic Clouds
star formation
HII region
dust
multiwavelength study
interstellar and intergalactic medium
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DDT Highlight: Horsehead Nebula Velocity Resolved [C II] Map using GREAT

The Horsehead Nebula (also known as Barnard 33) is a dark nebula and photodissociation region in the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex that is illuminated by the O9.5V star Sigma Orionis. To demonstrate the unique and important scientific capabilities of SOFIA, the upGREAT instrument has provided a velocity resolved map of the Horsehead Nebula in the [C II] line at 158 μm.

Keywords:
GREAT
Emission lines
HII regions
interstellar and intergalactic medium
massive stars
Molecular Clouds
Spectroscopy
star formation
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CO Excitation across the Circumnuclear Disk

The circumnuclear disk, a molecular gas disk surrounding the ionized gas of the Galactic center, gives us the unique opportunity to study spatially resolved molecular gas close to a massive black hole and investigate in detail the gas properties and the effects of the different local processes. The characterization of the molecular gas can be obtained with the CO excitation analysis, combining a sample of CO transitions.

Keywords:
GREAT
Emission lines
Molecular Clouds
interstellar medium
Galaxy Center
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