The SOFIA Science Center is organizing the special session 'Assessing the Impact of Stellar Feedback' at the 237th AAS meeting (online). The oral session will be held on Tuesday January 12, from 4:10 pm to 5:40 pm (Eastern Time). More information here.
SOFIA Returns to Flight
NASA’s flying observatory, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, has returned to science operations with a new series of flights designed to study the chemistry of galaxies.
SOFIA flights were suspended on March 19 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. With the resumption of flights out of SOFIA’s base at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, California, new procedures are in place to ensure the health and safety of staff while enabling the observations of celestial targets visible from the Northern Hemisphere. SOFIA started by flying two flights beginning Aug. 17, to allow the team time to evaluate and adjust the new procedures, and now plans to return to its regular observing schedule with about four flights each week.
"We are so thrilled to begin observations again and very thankful to the scientists, operations staff and pilots who are returning us to flight," said Margaret Meixner, SOFIA’s science mission operations director at the Universities Space Research Association. "In this flight series, SOFIA is studying the chemistry that influences the creation and evolution of galaxies across cosmic history. We cannot wait to see the data."
The team will explore distant galaxies to learn how black holes control the galaxies’ growth and how quickly stars form in them. To further understand how stars are born, the team will examine how magnetic fields affect the celestial clouds that incubate natal stars.
In June, SOFIA’s annual deployment to Christchurch, New Zealand was deemed not feasible given ongoing concerns related to the pandemic. Instead a new schedule was coordinated to take advantage of observing opportunities from California. New safety procedures are designed to meet NASA and Federal Aviation Administration requirements for safety and return to on-site work. New procedures include flying a minimal number of mission crew, social distancing and personal protective equipment for staff, and extra sanitation of the aircraft during and in-between flights.
Cycle 9 Calls for Proposals Formal Update on July 24
SOFIA’s Deployment to New Zealand Cancelled, New Flights to Resume
The leadership of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy reached a decision that the observatory’s annual deployment to Christchurch, New Zealand, is not feasible this year, given ongoing concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic. A revised flight schedule is being coordinated to focus on high-priority celestial targets that can be studied from SOFIA’s base at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, California.
The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) appointed Dr. Margaret Meixner as the Director of SOFIA’s Science Mission Operations, effective April 13, 2020. As director, Meixner will provide scientific, technical and management guidance to SOFIA. She will work in partnership with the German SOFIA Institute (DSI), and in close collaboration with NASA, to maximize the scientific productivity and impact of the observatory.
Prior to joining USRA, Meixner held several leadership positions at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), including Project Scientist for the James Webb Space Telescope and Instruments Division Deputy. Since 2016, she has been Community Co-Chair of the Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team. She is also a Principal Research Scientist at Johns Hopkins University, and a member of NASA’s Astrophysics Advisory Committee.
A recipient of several awards and honors, Meixner was named Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in 2015 and recognized for her leadership in infrared instrumentation for astronomy. She was also awarded the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) Science Achievement Award in 2009, and the 1994 Annie Jump Cannon Special Commendation of Honor.
Meixner earned her B.S. degrees in electrical engineering and mathematics in 1987 from the University of Maryland, College Park, and received her master and doctorate degrees in astronomy from the University of California, Berkeley.
Cycle 8 Selection Results Released
View the Cycle 8 Selection Results here.
Read the e-Newsletter here. Subscribe to the e-Newsletter here.
The Cycle 8 Call for Proposals had an outstanding response. For the U.S. and German queue combined, the SOFIA Science Center received 238 observing proposals. Of these, 47 proposals were accepted as Legacy, Priority 1, and Priority 2, with an additional 44 proposals accepted as Priority 3 and Survey programs (see entire list here). Furthermore, five archival research proposals were received and one was accepted.
The selected Legacy program (PI Neufeld) will span two observing cycles; two additional Legacy proposals were selected as pilot programs for Cycle 8 (PIs Lopez Rodriguez and Stephens). The data will have no exclusive-use period, and hence the community will have immediate access to these high-impact datasets.
Legacy Program - HyGAL: Characterizing the Galactic Interstellar Medium with Hydrides
PI: David Neufeld (Johns Hopkins University) and Peter Schilke (University of Cologne)
Proposal ID 08_0038
Abstract Excerpt: By means of absorption-line spectroscopy towards 22 background Terahertz continuum sources widely distributed within the Galactic plane, we will obtain robust measurements of the column densities of six hydride molecules (OH+, H2O+, ArH+, SH, OH, and CH) and two key atomic constituents (C+ and O) within the diffuse ISM. These observations will allow us to address several related questions: (1) What is the distribution function of H2 fraction in the ISM? (2) How does the density of low-energy cosmic-rays vary within the Galaxy? (3) What is the nature of interstellar turbulence (e.g. typical shear or shock velocities), and what mechanisms lead to its dissipation?
The anticipated results are (1) a determination of the distribution function for the H2 fraction in the Galaxy, and how it varies; (2) a determination of the cosmic-ray ionization rate and how it varies; (3) an improved characterization of turbulence in the diffuse ISM, and its dissipation; (4) the provision of enhanced data products that will serve as a legacy for future ISM studies.
Pilot Legacy Program - FIELDMAPS: Filaments Extremely Long and Dark: A Magnetic Polarization Survey
PI: Ian Stephens (Harvard & Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
Proposal ID 08_0186
Abstract Excerpt: Molecular gas in a galaxy generally follows the spiral arms. In the Milky Way, the densest of this molecular gas can form long, velocity-coherent filaments parallel and in close proximity to the Galactic plane. These dense filaments make up the 'skeleton' of molecular gas of the Milky Way - akin to the dark dust lanes seen in nearby spiral galaxies - and thus have been called 'bones.' For the early stages of star formation, these bones represent the largest star-forming structures in the Galaxy, and previous studies suggest that magnetic fields are critical to their formation. Our pilot survey of 2 bones show that HAWC+ can detect polarization over large angular extents with modest integration time. To understand how gas collects in the magnetized spiral potential, we propose a legacy survey to probe the magnetic fields across the entire extent of 8 additional bones (for a total of 10). We will use these observations in combination with new magnetohydrodynamical simulations of galactic formation of bones to investigate (1) the role of magnetic fields in the formation of bones, (2) how the field varies between arm and inter-arm bones, and (3) whether or not fields bend into filaments to build gas flows to the largest gravitational potential well.
Pilot Legacy Program - SOFIA Heralds a New Era of Measuring the Magnetic Fields of Galaxies
PI: Enrique Lopez-Rodriguez (SOFIA Science Center)
Proposal ID 08_0012
Abstract Excerpt: Our team has made important and unexpected discoveries about the role of the magnetic fields in nearby galaxies. We have found a) that galaxies typically host large-scale and coherent magnetic fields along the spiral arms, b) magnetic field strengths of ~uG with similar contributions from the random and ordered field components, and c) magnetic fields oriented along galactic outflows that are likely responsible for magnetizing the IGM. To date, these results have mostly emerged from single wavelength regimes: radio synchrotron polarization tracing the large-scale field structure in the ionized gas, and optical studies to investigate the effect of scattering and/or extinction by the ISM. These studies access the field on vastly different spatial scales and within different ISM phases. However, the effect of magnetic fields in dense regions of the ISM, outflows, and the ISM of merging galaxies are still poorly described. SOFIA/HAWC+ is key to provide a complete picture using far-infrared (FIR) polarimetric observations. This Joint Legacy Program aims to construct a comprehensive empirical picture of the magnetic field strength and structure in multiphase ISM of galaxies. Using HAWC+, we will conduct a FIR polarimetric survey covering the full disk of nearby galaxies.
Data Released for First Completed Legacy Program
Data Released for SOFIA's First Completed Legacy Program
Read the e-Newsletter here. Subscribe to the e-Newsletter here.
[CII] Discovery Linked to Supermassive Black Hole Jet
Discovery of Excess [CII] Emission Linked to Supermassive Black Hole Jet
Read the e-Newsletter here. Subscribe to the e-Newsletter here.
ApJL Focus Issue
In June 2019, the Astrophysical Journal Letters (ApJL) released a Special Issue providing analysis of several SOFIA studies that have yielded exciting results, including among others a new insight on the age of the galactic center HII region Srg B1, detailed imaging of the nearby galaxy M 51, and an upper limit to the total amount of water emitted from the recently discovered water plumes on Jupter’s moon Europa. The Special Issue can be downloaed here. Topics include the following:
The Highly Polarized Dusty Emission Core of Cygnus A
High Spectral Resolution Observations toward Orion BN at 6 μm: No Evidence for Hot Water
The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS): SOFIA Detects Spatially Resolved [C ii] Emission in the Luminous AGN HE 0433-1028
Gemini, SOFIA, and ATCA Reveal Very Young, Massive Protostars in the Collapsing Molecular Cloud BYF 73
SOFIA FIFI-LS Observations of Sgr B1: Ionization Structure and Sources of Excitation
Infrared Detection of Abundant CS in the Hot Core AFGL 2591 at High Spectral Resolution with SOFIA/EXES
High-resolution SOFIA/EXES Spectroscopy of SO2 Gas in the Massive Young Stellar Object MonR2 IRS3: Implications for the Sulfur Budget
A SOFIA Survey of [C ii] in the Galaxy M51. I. [C ii] as a Tracer of Star Formation
SOFIA Far-infrared Imaging Polarimetry of M82 and NGC 253: Exploring the Supergalactic Wind
A Search for Water Vapor Plumes on Europa using SOFIA
JAI Special Issue
Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation Special Issue featuring SOFIA!
The Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation (JAI) Special Issue featuring SOFIA was released in December 2018. The Special Issue is a compilation of in-depth reports and analysis on the telescope and its instrument suite that are extremely useful for those wanting to learn about the observatory. The Special Issue can be downloaded here. Topics include the following:
Overall technical advancements since the observatory reached full operational capacity, and a detailed report on the of the SOFIA instruments.
An Overview of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Since Full Operation Capability
SOFIA at Full Operation Capability: Technical Performance
The SOFIA Telescope in Full Operation
Increasing the SOFIA Secondary Mirror Mechanism’s Fast Steering Capability by Identification of a Structural Resonance and Its Subsequent Elimination Through Mass Re-Distribution
Image Size and Control System Developments of the Airborne Telescope SOFIA
A Review of Science Ground Operations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)
SOFIA Flight Planning and Execution
The SOFIA Focal Plane Imager: A Highly Sensitive and Fast Photometer for the Wavelength Range 0.4 to 1 Micron
EXES: The Echelon-cross-echelle Spectrograph for SOFIA
FIFI-LS: The Field-Imaging Far-Infrared Line Spectrometer on SOFIA
Spectral and Spatial Characterization and Calibration of FIFI-LS — The Field Imaging Spectrometer on SOFIA
HAWC++, the Far-Infrared Camera and Polarimeter for SOFIA
The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA
SOFIA-HIRMES: Looking Forward to the HIgh-Resolution Mid-infrarEd Spectrometer
Hina Kazmi, NASA
SOFIA Program Manager
Margaret Meixner, USRA
Science Mission Operations Director